Opgaver

Opgaver til kap. 1

Følgende spørgsmål og diskussionspunkter til With God on Our Side er ment som opgaver, der kan lette tekstforståelsen, åbne op for tekstanalysen, samt lægge op til perspektivering og diskussion. Det er vigtigt at understrege, at spørgsmålene på ingen måde er udtømmende eller organiseret efter et specifikt mønter, og for mange af teksternes vedkommende vil man have brug for supplerende spørgsmål afhængig af, hvilken tilgang til teksten man anlægger. Med andre ord er det således hensigten, at man kan lade sig inspirere af spørgsmålene og samtidig skal luge ud og tilføje. 
Hvis man har forslag til arbejdsopgaver, er man yderst velkommen til at sende dem til forlaget, således at de kan blive lagt op på denne side til nytte for bogens brugere.

CHAPTER 1
A Historical Introduction to the Vietnam War


Den amerikanske krig i Vietnam (introduktion på dansk)
● What were France and the Viet Minh trying to achieve in the war in Indochina from 1946 to 1954? Give a brief description of their main objectives. 
● Explain the Domino theory. Was this a realistic theory? Discuss. 
● For what reasons did America become involved in Vietnam?
● Give a description of the American soldier in Vietnam:
   ◦ Age
   ◦ Background
   ◦ Social status
● How and why did the opposition to the American war in Vietnam begin?
● Account for the reasons why American soldiers found it difficult to become re-integrated into American society when they returned from Vietnam.

John F. Kennedy: America's Stake in Vietnam (1956)

● According to Kennedy, what are America's interests in Vietnam? Account for these briefly.
● Kennedy defines Vietnam as "the cornerstone of the Free World" (p. 19). Why? 
● "If we are not the parent of little Vietnam, then surely we are the godparents" (p. 19). Comment on this passage.
● Who does the term “the Red Tide of Communism” (p. 19) refer to?

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In Country

Philip Caputo: A Rumor of War (1977)

● Account for the Marines' mission. What is their objective? What is the outcome?
● Why can't the lieutenant/narrator keep control of the platoon? What are the indications that he is losing control of his men?
● Why does he lose control of himself?
● Explain and comment on the following sentence: "It was a collective emotional detonation of men who had been pushed to the extremity of endurance¡± (pp. 26-27).
● Characterise the platoon and the narrator before and after the platoon "explodes". How do they behave, how do they feel?
● How can their behaviour be explained?
● Can their behaviour be justified in any way? Discuss.
● How does the narrator feel when they reach the hill and snap out of their madness? How does he explain his own behaviour?
● "Strangest of all had been the sensation of watching myself in a movie" (p. 28). What does this quotation tell us about the narrator's state of mind at the time of the battle?
● Explain and comment on the following sentence: "It had been a catharsis, a purging of months of fear, frustration and tension" (p. 28).
● The key question is: "Tai Sao"? Why did the platoon react in the way it did?
● Account for themes of the text.
● Why do you think the book is called A Rumor of War?
● Discuss Philip Caputo's musings on the morality or culpability of the American combat soldier in Vietnam. 
● Comment on Caputo's quotation in the introduction to the text: "Anyone who fought in Vietnam¡­". 
● How do Philip Caputo and Michael Herr (the author of Dispatches) explain the attraction or thrill of war? Williams Broyles, Jr. deals with some of the same issues in his essay "Why Men Love War" (p. 129). Examine his explanations and compare them with the ones given in A Rumor of War and Dispatches.
● Compare how the Vietnamese are viewed in Ambush, A Rumor of War and The General Goes Zapping Charlie Cong.

Michael Herr: Dispatches (1977)

● How does the journalist/narrator describe an attack? Examine his choice of words closely.
● Account for his emotions during an attack.
● Explain and comment on the following passages: 
   ◦ "Anxiety was a luxury, a joke you had no room for¡­" (p. 31)
   ◦ "You could be shot, mined, grenaded, rocketed, mortared, sniped at, blown up and away (¡­). It was almost marvellous" (p. 32)
   ◦ "It was the feeling you'd had when you were much, much younger and undressing a girl for the first time" (p. 33)
● Explain and comment on the William S. Burroughs quotation in the introduction to the text. Burroughs said about the book Dispatches that "All the facades of patriotism, heroism, and the whole colossal fraud of American intervention fall away to the bare bones of fear, war, and death." Discuss evidence from the text which supports this statement.
● How do Michael Herr and Philip Caputo (the author of A Rumor of War) explain the attraction or thrill of war? Williams Broyles, Jr. deals with some of the same issues in his essay Why Men Love War (p. 129). Examine his explanations and compare them with the ones given in A Rumor of War and Dispatches.

Nicholas Tomalin: The General Goes Zapping Charlie Cong (1966)

● Account for the mission they are on. What is their objective? What is the outcome? 
● Characterise the General. Find words, sentences and passages in the text that support your characterisation of him.
● "I just kill people, and save lives" (p. 35) How does the General see himself?
● After having hit the sandbagged opening with tracers, the General "lets out an oddly feminine, gentle laugh" (p. 37). Comment on his behaviour.
● Describe the VC they capture.
● Find words, phrases or passages that may have to do with human body and the sex act. Comment and discuss your findings.
● "All the noises of this war have an unaccountable Texan ring" (p. 37) Comment on this sentence.
● What is the General's attitude towards civilians?
● Comment on the General's behaviour when they return to the base. What does he say about civilians?
● Account for the journalist's behaviour and reaction to the events throughout the text. What makes his attitude toward the events clear?
● Account for the themes of the text.
● Nicholas Tomalin, the journalist, has written this article in a style called New Journalism. Why do you think he has chosen this particular style? What effect does this style have on the reader? What does he want to convey to the reader?
● As you can see in the introduction to this text, American author Tom Wolfe once said about this article that "It had the most astonishing impact in England, creating for English readers the emotional reality of war ¨C and a somewhat terrified fascination in it.". Discuss why.
● Compare how the Vietnamese are viewed in AmbushA Rumor of War and The General Goes Zapping Charlie Cong.
● Have you read other texts that deal with the fascination of war? Discuss.

Tim O'Brien: Ambush (1990)

● The narrator's daughter makes the following observation: "You keep writing these war stories (¡­) so I guess you must¡¯ve killed somebody" (p. 41). Comment on her remark.
● Why is it significant that his daughter makes him tell the story?
● Why does the narrator hope that his daughter will ask the question again?
● Why does he keep writing war stories?
● Why is it important for him to tell this story?
● Characterise the narrator. Describe his attitude towards the young Vietnamese he kills.
● I did not hate the young man; I did not see him as the enemy; I did not ponder issues of morality or politics or military duty" (p. 42) Comment on this passage. What does it tell us about the narrator? Why does he kill the young Vietnamese? Was it necessary to kill him?
● How does he feel afterwards?
● Why is the story called Ambush?
● Compare how the Vietnamese are viewed in Ambush, A Rumor of War and The General Goes Zapping Charlie Cong.

Bernard Edelman: Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam (1985)

1st letter:
● Characterise Rodney Chastant. What kind of home does he come from? Do we get any hints as to his upbringing and values? Why is this important?
● Why did he extend his tour of duty in Vietnam?
● How does he see his duty in Vietnam? How does he see his own contribution?

2nd letter:
● What has happened to Robert Ransom?
● How has Robert Ransom's baptism by fire changed him? 
● How does he see the Vietnamese?
● Compare the two letters: mood, personalities, how they view their own contributions to the war, etc.

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The Vietnamese and the War

Le Ly Hayslip: A World Turned Upside Down (1989)

● Account for the values that Le Ly Hayslip was brought up with.
● What was the essence of the lessons the Viet Cong taught her? 
● Compare the two songs. What messages do they convey?
● Why did Le Ly Hayslip choose to work and fight for the Viet Cong against the American and South Vietnamese soldiers?
● How did the peasants picture Western culture?
● What role did their ancestral spirits play in their daily lives?
● Why did the farmers go to war?
● How does this text portray the lives of the Vietnamese peasants during the war?
● To whom is this book dedicated? Why is this important?
● Explain what she means by "my country had yielded to the terrible logic of war" (p. 57).
● Le Ly Hayslip says that "We have important new roles to play" (p. 58). Who are "we" and what are these new roles? 
● What is the message of this text? What does Le Ly Hayslip want to convey to us? “If you were an American GI, I ask you to read this book and look into the heart of one you once called enemy” (p. 57).

Thruong Nhu Tang: A Viet Cong Memoir (1985)

● How does Nhu Tang describe the B-52 bombardments?
● Tang says that "the B-52 put life in order". (p. 61) What does he mean by that?
● How does this text portray the lives of the Viet Cong during the war?
● What is the message of this text? 

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Chapter 4
Civil Rights and the War in Vietnam

Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Time to Break Silence (1967)

● Why does Martin Luther King, Jr. feel compelled to break the silence concerning the Vietnam War? 
● What, according to King, is the connection between the war in Vietnam and the struggle for civil rights? 
● Sum up the reasons he outlines for deciding to speak up against the war in Vietnam.
● Why does King believe it to be "cruel irony" that black and white soldiers fight together for their country against the Viet Cong? 
● What does Gerald Gill say about this in his essay Black Soldiers’ Perspectives on the War? Compare King's and Gill's points in relation to this issue. 
● King says that the Vietnamese people must see the Americans as "strange liberators". Why? Sum up the reasons he gives.
● King argues that the Americans have destroyed the two most cherished institutions of the Vietnamese: the family and the village (p. 70). How does Le Ly Hayslip describe these two institutions in the text A World Turned Upside Down (p. 51)?
● "We are adding cynicism to the process of death, for they [the American troops] must know after a short period there that none of the things we claim to be fighting for are really involved" (p. 72). Explain and comment on this passage.
● What, according to King, will happen if the war continues?
● What does King believe should be done in order to stop the war and solve the conflict?
● "Every man of humane convictions must decide on the protest that best suits his convictions, but we must all protest" (p. 74). Discuss this statement.
● A true revolution of values will soon cause us to question the fairness and justice of many of our past and present policies. (…) This kind of positive revolution of values is our best defense against communism" (pp. 74-75). How does King describe the nature of this revolution of values?

Gerald Gill: Black Soldiers' Perspectives on the War (1984)

● Gerald Gill points out that in the mid-sixties black soldiers viewed the military and the escalating American intervention in Vietnam positively. What reasons does he give?
● By the late sixties, however, the attitudes of black soldiers changed radically. How and why? 
● In his speech A Time to Break Silence, what reasons does Martin Luther King give to speak up against the War in Vietnam? Compare.
● Why did the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. have such a great influence on black soldiers' attitude towards the war? According to Michael Herr it "intruded on the war in a way that no other outside event had ever done" (p. 79).
● In what ways did black American soldiers in Vietnam show their resistance to the war?
● The majority of the returning black soldiers did not join VVAW even though most of them were strongly opposed to the war. Why not? What did they concentrate on instead? 

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Chapter 5
Voices of Dissent

● Compare the song I-feel-like-I'm-fixin'-to-die-rag (1965) with the poem Up Rising (1964).
● What are the messages in these two texts?
● How do they convey their messages? Discuss the different ways in which they criticise the American intervention in Vietnam.
● Discuss Norman Mailer's definitions of good and bad wars in his text The Armies of the Night (1968). Does it make sense to talk about a good war? Can you think of one? Discuss. 
● Relate your discussion to Bob Dylan's song With God on Our Side. What wars are referred to in this text?
● What is the message in Dylan's song?
● What is Bob Dylan's attitude towards these wars?
● Why do you think Dylan's song – and this anthology – are called With God on Our Side? Discuss. 

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Chapter 6
Homecoming

Ron Kovic: Born on the Fourth of July (1976)

● How does Kovic manage to get up front in the convention hall?
● Why does he mention that he was born on the Fourth of July? Why is this important? What role does the Fourth of July play in Speaking of Courage? Compare.
● What is the goal of his demonstration?
● Why does he call Nixon a liar?
● What message does Kovic want to convey to the American people?
● How does Kovic feel when Nixon enters the stage and what does he think of?
● How does Kovic feel afterwards? "It had been the biggest moment of our lives" (p. 99) Why?
● Compare Kovic with Norman Bowker, the main character of Speaking of Courage – and Paul Sgroi, the Vietnam veteran who wrote the essay To Vietnam and Back.
● Collect evidence of the gap between veterans and civilians in the texts you have read. What are their problems in relation to re-integration and coming to terms with their experiences in Vietnam?
● Discuss how these vets seem to be haunted by the past.

Tim O’Brien: Speaking of Courage (1989)

● Characterise Norman Bowker.
● Why does he continue circling the lake?
● What does he think about while circling the lake?
● Why is it so difficult for him to tell people about his experiences in the war? Why doesn't he tell his father about what happened to him in Vietnam?
● Describe the town to which Norman has returned. Incorporate comments on the following passages into your description: "It had no memory, therefore no guilt" and "It did not know shit about shit, and did not care to know" (p. 104).
● Why doesn't he visit his former girlfriend, Sally?
● Why does he think about Max Arnold? What is his function in the story?
● What is Norman's Vietnam story?
● How does he describe courage?
● Describe the incident at the fast food restaurant. What does this incident tell us about him?
● What is the function of the lake in the story? What does the lake represent?
● When does the story take place? Why is this important?
● In the last paragraph of the story, what does Norman do – and why?
● What are the themes in the story?
● Collect evidence of the gap between veterans and civilians in the texts you have read. What are their problems in relation to re-integration and coming to terms with their experiences in Vietnam?
● Discuss how these vets seem to be haunted by the past.

Paul Sgoi: To Vietnam and Back (1985)

● Why did Paul Sgroi write this letter/essay?
● What reason does he give for writing the letter in the present tense? Why is this significant?
● Why, according to Sgroi, did America lose the war? Do you agree with him? Discuss.
● Comment on the following passage: "In their minds, they have continued to exist in the bush. Although they are physically on United States soil, they live in Vietnam" (p. 112).
● Account for Sgroi's experiences in the war.
● "Vietnam was not knowing who your friend and enemy was" (p. 114). What does he mean by this? In what other texts you have read does this issue come to light?
● Describe Sgroi's return to America. What kind of welcome did he receive? 
● Describe Sgroi's life after the war. What kind of problems does he face? Compare with the experiences of other Vietnam veterans you have read about (e.g. Born on the Fourth of JulySpeaking of CourageWhy Men Love WarVietnam: My Enemy, My Brother)
● "But aren't all of us Vietnam Vets, regardless of whether we participated in the war or not?" (p. 118). Comment on this passage. What does Sgroi mean by this?
● Why does he end his letter with the words, "Welcome home, Paul"?
● Why did it take him 16 years to write this letter, do you think? 
● Collect evidence of the gap between veterans and civilians in the texts you have read. What are their problems in relation to re-integration and coming to terms with their experiences in Vietnam?
● Discuss how these vets seem to be haunted by the past. 

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Chapter 7
The Aftermath

Yusef Komunyakaa: Facing It (1988)

● What is the setting of the poem?
● What does the narrator mean by: "I'm stone. I'm flesh"? (l. 5)
● Comment on the line: "my clouded reflection eyes me like a bird of prey". (l. 6)
● What happens to the narrator in front of the wall? (Looking at the cover of this book may give you a clue.)
● "I’m inside the Vietnam Veterans Memorial", Komunyakaa’s narrator says. What does this mean? Discuss how many of the veterans you have met in the texts still feel trapped inside the war.
● How would you interpret the fact that the black wall mirrors your face when you are standing in front of it? 
● How would you interpret the last lines of the poem? 
● What do you notice about the language of this poem? Account for the use of imagery in the poem.
● What does the title of the poem mean?
● What is the message of the poem?
● Compare the poem with In Country.

Bobbie Ann Mason: In Country (1985)

● How does Sam feel as they are approaching the Vietnam Veterans Memorial?
● How is the Vietnam Veterans Memorial described?
● Why does Sam become angry at the schoolkids? What does this incident make her realise?
● Why do the Washington Monument and the American Flag seem like "arrogant gestures"? (p. 125)
● How does Sam feel upon seeing the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and her father's name?
● Comment on the sentence: "It feels like giving birth to this wall" (p. 125). Why does she feel this way?
● Why does it make such a strong impression on Sam to see her own name on the wall?
● Comment on the passage: "She touches her own name. How odd it feels, as though all the names in America have been used to decorate this wall" (p. 128). Compare this passage with Paul Sgroi's remark: "… aren't all of us Vietnam Vets, regardless of whether we participated in the war or not?" (p. 118).
● Discuss what the Vietnam Veterans Memorial means to Sam (who lost her father in the war), Emmett (who is a veteran of the war) and to Mamaw (who lost her son in the war).
● What are the themes in this text?
● Compare this text with the poem Facing It.

William Broyles, Jr.: Why Men Love War (1984)

● In what way do the veterans feel a certain ambivalence towards the war, according to Broyles?
● How does he portray the life of a Vietnam veteran?
● Compare this with portrayals of veterans in other texts you have read (e.g. Speaking of Courage).
● Explain and comment on the following statement: "There were no metaphors that connected the war to everyday life." (p. 130).
● Explain and comment on the following sentence: "War is the enduring condition of man …" (p. 131).
● How does Broyles characterise himself? Why does he miss the war at some points?
● Sum up the reasons Broyles gives for why men love war. In this connection, comment on the statements below. Find more statements that explain why men love war and comment on them:
   ◦ War is an escape from the everyday (p. 133)
   ◦ War is a game (p. 133)
   ◦ The enduring emotion of war is comradeship (p. 134)
   ◦ Isolation is the greatest fear in war (p. 134)
   ◦ War is beautiful (p. 139)
● Describe Broyles' feelings on his first encounter with the enemy (p. 134). Compare withDispatches or Ambush.
● What did the Vietnam Veterans Memorial mean to the veterans according to Broyles? (pp. 135-36) 
● Find examples from other texts in the book that describe the significance of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial (e.g. Facing It and In Country).
● What does Broyles say about the significance of war stories? "I have never once heard a grunt tell a reporter a war story that wasn't a lie…" (p. 136). Why is it so difficult to tell the truth?
● Broyles refers to a war story from Michael Herr's Dispatches (p. 136). What is the point of this story?
● "And one of the most troubling reasons men love war is the love of destruction, the thrill of killing" (p. 137). Do you agree? Discuss.
● Comment on the sentence: "Language liberated us" (p. 137). What does Broyles mean? Could you give other examples from the texts you have read?
● "War is, in short a turn-on" (p. 140). Comment on this statement. What does Broyles say about war and sex? Compare with The General Goes Zapping Charlie Cong.
● How does Broyles describe and explain his attraction to the Vietnamese girl? Explain and comment on the following passage: "She was the suffering soul of war, and I was the soldier who has wounded it but would make it whole." (p. 141).
● Comment on the ending: "It's a long way from Nam, isn't it?" "Yes. And no."
● Collect evidence of the gap between veterans and civilians in the texts you have read. What are their problems in relation to re-integration and coming to terms with their experiences in Vietnam?
● Discuss how these vets seem to be haunted by the past.

Frederick Downs, Jr.: Vietnam: My Enemy, My Brother (1988)

● Why and how did the trip back to Vietnam change Downs' view of Vietnam – and America?
● Describe his feelings when getting off the airplane in Hanoi. Why is it a "confusing experience" for him?
● What is his experience of the city now? How does he describe the city? What surprises him? What makes an impact on him?
● Give examples of the poverty he experiences in Hanoi.
● Why does he call the North Vietnamese victory a "Pyrrhic victory"? (p. 144-145)
● "I began to see the Vietnamese as a people" (p. 144). Comment on this.
● "This is what war does to us. It prevents us from seeing our enemies as human beings" (p. 145). Comment on this passage.
● Explain why he feels a sense of kinship with the Vietnamese vets he meets.
● Why does this kinship bother him?
● Walking in the streets of Hanoi, he feels a sense of freedom. Explain why.
● What is Downs' message in this essay?
● Collect evidence of the gap between veterans and civilians in the texts you have read. What are their problems in relation to re-integration and coming to terms with their experiences in Vietnam?
● Discuss how these vets seem to be haunted by the past.

Bobbie Ann Mason & Philip Caputo: What Did We Learn from Vietnam? (2000)

Bobbie Ann Mason
● What does Mason mean by "… an evil has always haunted the heart of the American Dream…"? (p. 149)
● Why are the lessons of the Vietnam War revisited and revised each time the US is planning to intervene in another country?
● Mason refers to a quotation from her novel In Country. The Vietnam Vet, Emmet, says, "What you learn from history is that you can't learn from history – that's what history is". Discuss this quotation. Do you agree? Relate it to recent wars or crises involving the US.

Philip Caputo
● Why doesn't it make sense to deny the war or revise the war, according to Caputo?
● How has the US made progress in coming to terms with the war, according to Caputo?
● "America is less likely to leap blindly into a quagmire…" (p. 150). Compare this with Mason's quotation: "What you learn from history…". Discuss. Whom do you agree with? Why?
● "… the America we live in was formed during the Vietnam era" (p. 150). Give examples supporting this statement and discuss it.
● Explain and discuss the last two lines of the interview: "On the deepest level, the legacy of Vietnam is the disruption of our story, of our explanation of the past and vision of the future" (p. 151). 

Forslag til tværfaglige forløb om Vietnamkrigen i historie og engelsk

HISTORIE

Vietnam som den lille drage

Vietnam – fra drage til tiger, kapitel 1

Se videoen: Vietnams historie, afsnit 1 (60 min.)

Fokus på Vietnams kamp mod Kina, senere mod franskmændene under koloniherredømmet.

ENGELSK

HISTORIE

Vietnams nationalisme

Vietnam – fra drage til tiger, kapitel 2

Tekst 3 og 4

Fokus på årsagerne til dannelsen af befrielseshæren Viet Minh: er det en nationalistisk eller kommunistisk bevægelse?

ENGELSK

HISTORIE

Indokinakrigen

Vietnam – fra drage til tiger, kapitel 3

Tekst 8

Fokus på skift i USA's holdning til krigen i Indokina i 1950 som følge af, at Kina bliver kommunistisk og Koreakrigens begyndelse.

USA's dominoteori formuleres.

ENGELSK

HISTORIE

Genevekonferencen 1954

Vietnam – fra drage til tiger, kapitel 4

Tekst 10 og 13

Fokus på USA's holdning til fredsslutningen og efterfølgende engagement i Asien (SEATO)

ENGELSK

HISTORIE

Amerikansk støtte til Sydvietnam

Vietnam – fra drage til tiger, kapitel 5

Tekst 14-15

Fokus på USA's holdning til udviklingen i Vietnam og årsagerne til USA's støtte til Ngo Dien Diem i Sydvietnam.

ENGELSK

A Historical Introduction to the Vietnam war

John F. Kennedy: America's Stake in Vietnam (1956)

HISTORIE

Amerikansk Vietnampolitik

Vietnam – fra drage til tiger, kapitel 6

Tekst

Fokus på årsagerne til øget amerikansk indsats i Vietnam. Behandling af Tonkinbugtepisoden og dens følger.

ENGELSK

HISTORIE

Vietnamkrigen 1965-68

Vietnam – fra drage til tiger, kapitel 7

Tekst

Fokus på krigens udvikling og krigens oplevelser for de amerikanske soldater. Hvorfor var krigen i Vietnam en anden? Især lægges der vægt på, hvordan krigen påvirkede de amerikanske soldater.

Se filmen Platoon

ENGELSK

In Country

Philip Caputo: A Rumor of War (1977)

Michael Herr: Dispatches (1977)

Bernard Edelman: Dear America (1985)

HISTORIE

Vietnamkrigen 1968-73

Vietnam – fra drage til tiger, kapitel 9

Tekst

Fokus på krigens afslutning og årsagerne til, at USA trak sig ud.

ENGELSK

William Broyles: Why Men Love War (1984)

HISTORIE

Vietnamveteranerne

Vietnam – fra drage til tiger, kapitel 8

Tekst

Fokus på årsagerne til, at de amerikanske soldater ikke kunne re-integreres i det amerikanske samfund efter krigen.

Se filmen "Born on 4th of July"

ENGELSK

Homecoming

Tim O'Brien: Speaking of Courage (1989)

ENGELSK

The Aftermath

Yusef Komunyakaa: Facing It (1988)

Bobbie Ann Mason: In Country (1985)

Mason & Caputo: What Did We Learn from Vietnam (2000)

Referencer

Materiale og links på dansk og svensk

30. april – 25 året for afslutningen på Vietnam krigen blev fejret med en stor parade i Ho Chi Minh byen (Saigon) foran Saigons gamle præsidentpalads.

Danske bøger, se vores litteraturliste * Bog af Peter Frederiksen: Vietnam – fra drage til tiger.

Litteraturliste og links Vietnam-krigen (da/eng), for gymnasium og HF (Ph.D. stipendiat Jens Chr. Kildemoes Hansen).

Læs om DR2's engelsk dokumentarserie "Vietnam-krigen - USA's vej til helvede" (sendt 30. april, 7. og 14. maj).* Læs om DR2 temalørdag om Vietnam, reportage af journalisten Jens Nauntofte samt filmen "Richaw", samt uddrag af Nauntofte's bog "Gul stjerne over Vietnam: Billeder fra Saigons befrielse. Marts April Maj 1975".

Vietnamkrigen - oversigtsartikle : Bragt i Vietnam ajour nr. 1 2000 (udskrift fylder 6 sider). Artiklen er redigeret af DVF og indgår i leksikon fra forlaget Solidaritet

Vietnam-krigen - USA's historiske nederlag : Længere artikel fra 1985 (skrevet til 10 års dagen) af Inger V. Johansen og bragt i "Vietnam"-bladet nr. 1 1985. (udskrift fylder 12 sider)

Svensk: Kronologi fra 1961 til 1975

Materiale og links på engelsk

The Vietnam War Museum on the Internet og deres link-side

Oversigt over Vietnam Veteran Homepages

CNN: Vietnam - Echoes of War

The Victory of Peace in Vietnam This website commemorating the 25th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War includes a section on news, a photo gallery and links to various historical documents.

The New York Times.Learning.Network The Fall of Saigon 1973-75

Vietnam conflict remembered This BBC picture gallery consists of several images of the preparations underway in Vietnam to mark the communist victory against the Americans 25 years ago

Recalling the Vietnam War. Interviews with decision makers and commentators on the legacy of the Vietnam War, from University of California at Berkeley.

From The Vietnam War Internet Project Images, documents and oral histories from the Vietnam War. * Vietnam War Internet Project

From the Associated Press Fall of Saigon: 25 Years Later, includes an analysis, photos, video and a timeline.

NBC's Coverage of the 25th Anniversary of the Fall of Saigon and the End of the Vietnam War

Vietnam: 25 Years Later This special report on Salon.com includes audio and video clips, articles and interviews.

Bog om amerikanske soldaters oplevelser i Vietnam "What Are They Going To Do, Send Me To Vietnam?"

USA Committee on Veterans' Affairs Web Site, The Vietnam War

From The Virtual Wall A virtual representation of the Vietnam Veterans' Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Vietnam, Echoes from the Wall: interaktiv undervisning om Vietnam-krigen fra USA

Pete Peterson, Assignment Hanoi - USAs ambassadør i TV-udsendelse 6/9/1999 i USA.

Vietnam Online accompany Vietnam: A Television History, book: Vietnam: A History by Stanley Karnow.

Samling om krigen VietnamCenter, Texas Tech University, tidsskrift om udviklingen i dag Indochina Chronology

The Wars for Vietnam 1945-75, Vassar College USA, fra professor Rober Brigham. Oversigtsartikle om krigen, fotos og originale dokumenter, samt over 50 links.

Vietnam War (1961-1975) fra Canadian Forces College imponerende samling links

PeaceTrees Vietnam clearing landmines and helping children in Quang Tri Province

Vietnam War History Research Files, USA * The Vietnam War Resource Guide (veteraner), USA.

Vietnam Veterans Homepage * Vietnam Veterans Against the War

Bibliograhy on Vietnam War af Edwin Moise fra Clemson Universitetet i South Carolina, USA.

Links om Vietnam

Officielle sider

· Vietnam's officielle hjemmeside findes på adressen: home.vnn.vn
· Adressen i Vietnam kan sommetider være langsom eller optaget og så kan man med fordel benytte kopien i USA: home.vnd.net

· Vietnams ambassade i USA: vietnamembassy-usa.org

· UNDP i Vietnam har lavet et Directory of state organisations of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam

· Grundlov fra 1992: batin.com.vn/vninfo/vni.htm

· Vietnam News Agency vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn - online-udgave af det engelsksprogede dagblad.

· Danmarks Ambassade i Vietnam - dk-vn.dk

· Danmarks Udenrigsministerium har en flot hjemmeside (både på dansk og engelsk) um.dk

Generelt

· Artikler af 3 elever på journalisthøjskolen fra april 1999: www.djh.dk/global/vietnam/

· Dansk Flygtningehjælp: www.drc.dk - man kan se antal ankomne og naturaliserede vietnamesere i Danmark i statistikbasen.

· Kulturside om kunst, arkitektur, historie, litteratur, musik, mønter, frimærker og Champa: www.viettouch.com

· Vietnam-online omfatter erhverv, nyheder, rejser og kultur. Også nyheder og artikler fra ugeavisen Vietnam Investment Review www.vietnamonline.net

· Linkside lavet af Århus bibliotek: www.aakb.bib.dk/finfo/lande/vietnam.htm

· The Vietnam Pictures Archive har mange fotos og billeder samt henvisning til mange lignende sider: sunsite.unc.edu/vietnam/vnpic.html

· God kort beskrivelese af landet og kulturen: www.interknowledge.com/vietnam/index.html

· Mange oplysninger og links på denne halvoffcielle hjemmeside i Australien: coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVLPages/VietPages/WWWVL-Vietnam.html

· Links om alle typer emner: sunsite.nus.edu.sg/SEAlinks/vietnam-info.html

· Internet Resources for the Study of Vietnam - masser af links: www.idbsu.edu/history/swoods/vietnam.html

· Internet, Metropolitan Vietnam Netværk (vietnamesere i USA) www.imvn.com

· Gateway to The online Vietnamese Community (USA): www.vietgate.net

· The vietnamese Way to Europe: vietfrance.com

· TET: Engelsk side om Tet, det vietnamesiske nytår www.fcvn.org/tet.htm (16/2-1999, 5/2 2000)

· VEJRET: Vejrudsigt, oversigt og detaljer for 25 vietnamesiske byer, samt 4 døgns prognose: www.wunderground.com/global/VS.html

· Satellitbillede Sydøstasien: www.weather.com/images/sat/asiasat_756x484.gif

· TID: Local time in Hanoi-Saigon, Vietnam

Litteratur og studier

· Det kan være svært at skaffe udenlandske bøger om Vietnam, men nu kan man søge på Internettet og betale med kreditkort. Den britiske (eller tyske) division af det amerikanske Internet-ordre-firma Amazon kan være billigere og hurtigere end at bestille fra USA, og en søgning på "*vietnam*" fandt 822 bøger med Vietnam i titlen, alt fra historie og guider til kogebøger (incl. 'Passage to Vietnam'). Sommetider kan det betale sig at sammenligne udvalg, priser, transport og vekselkurser. USA: www.amazon.com - UK (og USA): www.amazon.co.uk - Tyske (og USA): www.amazon.de

· Nordisk Institut for Asien Studier (NIAS) har hjemmeside på engelsk. Tidskriftet NIASnytt, salg af bøger om bl.a. Vietnam, biblioteket, hvilke tidsskrifter der holdes), og hvilke bøger der findes på NIAS: nias.ku.dk

· Australian National University, mange oplysninger/emner/links: coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVLPages/VietPages/coombs-map.html/

· The Indochina Center of the University of California, Berkeley, contains one of the largest collections in the world of English-language materials on Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. It also includes a recently expanded collection of contemporary serials from Vietnam, now the largest collection in the San Francisco Bay Area. By Steve Denney, with many interesting links: www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~sdenney/

· VietnamCenter, Texas Tech University, med tidsskrift om udviklingen i dag Indochina Chronology

· A dedicated search engine accessing major Asian Studies' research resources recorded by the HotBot database www.ciolek.com/SearchEngines.html

· Vietnamese Econimic Network for economists and otheres doing research on Vietnam: www.arts.uwaterloo.ca/~vecon/index.html

· Vietnam Studies Group, University of Washington Libraries, om studier, bl.a. liste over Institutter mv. i Vietnam: www.lib.washington.edu/southeastasia/vsg/default.html

Bistand

· Tal og statistikker til brug i skolen og til andre med interesse for udviklingen i verden. I et særligt afsnit behandles programsamarbejdslandene, dvs. de 20 udviklingslande som Danida har et særligt bistandssamarbejde med, incl. Vietnam: www.udviklingstal.dk

· Vejviser til det danske u-landsmiljø: www.u-land.dk

· Localized Poverty Reduction in Vietnam: www.interchg.ubc.ca/chs/lprv/ The website contains a valuable section called The Virtual Centre for Poverty Reduction in Vietnam.

· Care Danmark projekt i Phu Yen (Nordvietnam): www.care.dk/dk/projekter/vietnam.htm/vietnam.htm

· Office of Genetic Counseling And Disabled Children in Hue: vn-gw.net.vn/~disabled/

· FN i Vietnam har nu fået hjemme side: www.un.org.vn

· FNs udviklingsorganisation har egen hjemmeside i Vietnam: www.undp.org.vn

· US-Indochina Reconciliation Projekt arbejder med at koordinere alle NGO-projekter fra USA samt udgiver kvartalsbladet Indochina Interchange: www.usirp.org

· Social Assistance Program for Vietnam: www.sap-vn.org

Menneskerettigheder og opposition

· Human Rights Watch bl.a. rapport om Thai Binh: www.hrw.org/hrw/research/vietnam.html

· Amnesty International bl.a. med årsrapport: www.amnesty.org/ailib/countries/indx341.htm

· Vietnam Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998, udsendt 26/2/1999, af U.S. Department of State: www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/1998_hrp_report/vietnam.html (17 sider print).

· Vietnam Insight, har mange nyheder: www.vinsight.org

· Free Vietnam Organization, har bl.a. biografier om en række oppositionelle: www.fva.org

· Vietnam Human Rights Network (USA): www.vnhrnet.org

· Vietnamesiske katolikker i USA findes på www.vietcatholic.net/eng/main.htm

Miljø

· Agent Orange: Hatfield Group companies studied the long term effects of the Agent Orange defoliant, one of an array of herbicides sprayed over Viet Nam between 1962 and 1971 by US military forces: www.hatfieldgroup.com/spotlight/vietnam.htm
· Viet Nam Red Cross Agent Orange Fund: vn-gw.net.vn/~orange.
· USA website by Rob Lunden (veteran and agent orange victim) with information on the Agent Orange Review on: members.aol.com/bear317/nwvets3.htm

· Vietnam Science, Technology and Environment Page, The Australia Vietnam Science-Technology Link with materiel on environment, technology, modern history and many links: coombs.anu.edu.au/~vern/avsl.html

· Biodiversity Profile of The Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, compiled by WCMC in 1994. The World Conservation Monitoring Centre provides information services on conservation and sustainable use of the world's living resources, and helps others to develop information systems of their own. www.wcmc.org.uk/infoserv/countryp/vietnam/index.html

· Floder og dæmninger, International Rivers Network, bl.a. kritisk overfor Mekong-projektet har adresse på www.irn.org

· Group decicated to substainable develovment of the Mekong River Basin: www.mekongforum.org

· Reconciling Disparate Paradigms: Environmental Sustainability and Economic Growth in Vietnam is a study on sustainable development in Vietnam: gurukul.ucc.american.edu/ted/papers/vietnam.htm

Økonomi og erhverv

· Danmarks Ambassade i Vietnam: www.dk-vn.dk

· Adam Fforde's Free Monthly ADUKI newsletter about the state of the Vietnamese economy and other things interesting. Based on internal reports, and distributed free. Vietnam Economic Commentary and Analysis: ADUKI Pty Ltd is a consultancy company specialising in Vietnam and countries of the SE Asian region. It has expertise in the fields of economics, business, health, English language teaching and project development.: www.aduki.com.au

· The Saigon Times Daily is the premier Vietnamese English Language Business Daily printed in Ho Chi Minh City: www.saigon-news.com

· Vietnam Economic Times, med daglige nyheder: www.vneconomy.com.vn

· Økonomiske og forretningsnyheder: www.vitranet.vnn.vn

· Forretnings, jura og statistik information: www.batin.com.vn/content.shtml

· The Vietnam Business Journal har nye artikler, god statistikside og links: www.viam.com

· Asian Development Bank (ADB) har bl.a. oplysninger om bankens 15 projekter i Vietnam, samt økonomiske og sociale statistikker: www.adb.org

· ASEAN's hjemmeside for Vietnam om handel og investeringer: vietnam.tdb.gov.sg

· UNDP: Improving the Regulatory Environment for Business, Project aimed to improve the regulatory environment for business with the aim of encouraging increased investment, income and employment: www.undp.org.vn/projects/vie97016/index.htm

· Far Eastern Economic Review: www.feer.com

· Links om alle typer emner: sunsite.nus.sg/SEAlinks/vietnam-info.html

· Center for Global Trade Development, bøger om handel med Vietnam: www.cgtd.com/global/vietnam.html

· Oplysninger fra Vietnams ambassade i USA: www.vietnamembassy-usa.org

· Country Commercial Guide 1997 (September 30, 1996) af USA's Ambassade i Hanoi (bemærk 250k dokument): coombs.anu.edu.au/~vern/vn-commercial-guide.html

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